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March 1, 2010

Beberapa Faktor-faktor Emisi

Filed under: Uncategorized — rajinpangkalsukses @ 8:33 am

(Version 1.2,  March 12, 2001)

Sumber : http://www.sbcapcd.org/eng/tech/frog_01.htm

http://www.sbcapcd.org/eng/tech/em_fac.htm

Source Type

TOC Emissions Factor ROC Emissions Factor

EF Units

ROC/TOC Fraction – mass basis

(FROG)

Emission Factor Reference

FROG Reference

Oil/Water Separators use Appendix A, Section III of P&P and the FROG value use Appendix A, Section III of P&P MM gallons/day 0.606 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

Reference (5)

Sumps, Waste Water Tanks and Well Cellars use Appendix A, Section II of P&P and the FROG value use Appendix A, Section II of P&P ft2 0.606 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

Reference (5)

FHC: Valves and Fittings (non-component count method) use Tables I.1, I.2 and I.3 of P&P and the FROG value use Tables I.1, I.2 and I.3 of P&P lb/day-well 0.391 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

References (2) and (5)

FHC: Pumps (non-component count method) use Appendix A, Section IV of P&P and the FROG value use Appendix A, Section IV of P&P # of wells 0.492 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

Reference (5)

FHC: Well Heads (non-component count method) use Appendix A, Section IV of P&P and the FROG value use Appendix A, Section IV of P&P # of wells 0.606 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

Reference (5)

FHC: Compressors (non-component count method) use Appendix A, Section IV of P&P and the FROG value use Appendix A, Section IV of P&P # of wells 0.262 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

Reference (5)

FHC: Enhanced Oil Recovery Fields (non-component count method) use Appendix A, Section V of P&P and the FROG value use Appendix A, Section V of P&P # of wells 0.912 P&P 6100.060.096

CARB/KVB Method

P&P 6100.060.096

Reference (3)

FHC: Offshore Platforms (component count)

– Gas/Condensate Service (all types)

– Oil Service (all types)

use Table 2 of P&P use Table 2 and FROG value from the P&P lb/day-leak path 0.33 (gas)

0.33 (oil)

P&P 6100.061.096

Tecolote Method

Tecolote Report (1986)
FHC: Production Field (component count)

– Gas/Condensate Service (all types)

– Oil Service (all types)-

use Table 2 of P&P use Table 2 and FROG value from the P&P lb/day-leak path 0.31 (gas)

0.56 (oil)

P&P 6100.061.096

API Method

API Report (1980)
FHC: Refinery (component count)

– Gas/Condensate Service (all types)

– Oil Service (all types)

use Table 2 of P&P use Table 2 and FROG value from the P&P lb/day-leak path 0.99 (gas)

0.99 (oil)

P&P 6100.061.096

EPA AP-42

EPA AP-42
FHC: Gas Processing Plant (component count)

– Gas/Condensate: valve

– Gas/Condensate: connection

– Gas/Condensate: compressor seal

– Gas/Condensate: pump seal

– Gas/Condensate: pressure relief

– Oil Service (all types)

use Table 2 of P&P use Table 2 and FROG value from the P&P lb/day-leak path 0.38 (gas valve)

0.43 (gas conn)

0.20 (gas comp)

0.79 (gas pump)

0.07 (gas prd)

0.33 (oil all)

P&P 6100.061.096

EPA Radian (1982) gas

API Report (1980) oil

P&P 6100.061.096

EPA Radian (1982) gas

API Report (1980) oil

FHC: Onshore Oil and Gas Facilities (component count) Tecolote oil factors

(used for GTC, Gaviota GP, HS&P only)

0.066 0.0304 lb/day-leak path 0.46 Tecolote Report (1986)

Model B

Tecolote Report (1986)
Crude Oil Fixed Roof Storage Tanks: Evaporative Losses use AP-42 equations use AP-42 equations and FROG value lb/yr 0.885 AP-42, Chapter 7, 5th Edition ARB VOC Profile #297
Crude Oil Fixed Roof Tanks: Flashing Losses mass balance or API eqn mass balance or API eqn and FROG value lb/bbl 0.308 mass balance using site GOR data or API eqn based on upstream pressures ARB VOC Profile #757
Loading Racks mass balance using EF = 12.46*S*P*M/T

Use table 5.2-1 for S values; figures 7.1-5, 7.1-5 and table 7.1-2 for P values; use table 7.1-2 for M values.

mass balance using EF = 12.46*S*P*M/T and FROG value lb/1000 gal 0.885 (crude oil) AP-42, Chapter 5, Section 5.2 (Chapter 7 for P and M values). Crude oil default M = 50 lb/lb-mole ARB VOC Profile #297 for crude oil.
Pipeline Pig Launchers/Receivers mass balance based on volume of gas vented per event.

EF = (P*M)/(R*T)

P = 5 psig

M = 50 oil, 23 gas

R = 10.73

T = site conditions or use std condition if not known

mass balance based on volume of gas vented and FROG value lb/acf vented per event 0.308 (gas units)

0.885 (oil units)

APCD Engineering Div.

Assumes unit is de-pressurized to VRU or similar, calculate vented volume based on residual pressure of 5 psig and physical volume of unit using ideal gas law.

ARB VOC Profile #757 for gas units

ARB VOC Profile #297 for oil units

Piston IC engine: Diesel 0.36 0.30 lb/MMBtu 0.8378 AP-42, Table 3.3-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #9
Piston IC Engine: Natural Gas (Uncontrolled) 1.354 0.103 lb/MMBtu 0.0763 APCD Hearing Board factor of 300 lb/MMscf

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #719
Piston IC Engine: Natural Gas (Controlled)

– Rule 333 Lean Burn 250 ppmv

– Rule 333 Rich Burn 750 ppmv

10.92 (rich burn)

32.89 (lean burn)

0.83 (rich burn)

2.50 (lean burn)

lb/MMBtu 0.0763 Rule 333 ROC emission standard

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #719
Piston IC Engine: Gasoline (Uncontrolled) 3.03 2.92 lb/MMBtu 0.964 AP-42, Table 3.3-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

FROG is a weighted composite of exhaust and evaporative reactivities

ARB VOC Profile #502

ARB VOC Profile #710

Piston IC Engine: Gasoline (Controlled with catalyst) 2.08 1.70 lb/MMBtu 0.8186 Rule 333 ROC emission standard based on exhaust only – assumes PCV and evaporative controls are in place

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #500
Turbine: Natural Gas electric generating unit rated over 3 MW 0.024 0.0018 lb/MMBtu 0.0763 AP-42, Table 3.1-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #719
Turbine: Diesel (all types) 0.017 0.014 lb/MMBtu 0.8378 AP-42, Table 3.1-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #9
Turbine: Natural Gas electric generating units rated 3 MW and under and all prime mover operations 0.053 0.0040 lb/MMBtu 0.0763 AP-42, Table 3.2-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #719
Flares, Thermal Oxidizers, Incinerators 0.14 0.086 lb/MMBtu 0.617 AP-42, Table 13.5-1 AP-42, Table 13.5-2

Table 13.5-2 average volume data is converted to a mass basis, then we assume half of ethane/ethylene result is ethane.

External Combustion – Natural Gas: Boilers, Process Heaters, Steam Generators em fac (MMBtu/hr)

0.0108

em fac (MMBtu/hr)

0.0054

lb/MMBtu ratio (MMBtu/hr)

0.50

AP-42, Table 1.4-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

AP-42, Table 1.4-2
External Combustion – Diesel #2: Boilers, Process Heaters, Steam Generators em fac (MMBtu/hr)

0.0018 (>=10)

0.0039 (<10)

em fac (MMBtu/hr)

0.0014 (>=10)

0.0024 (<10)

lb/MMBtu ratio (MMBtu/hr)

0.79 (>=10)

0.61 (<10)

AP-42, Table 1.3-4

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

AP-42, Table 1.3-4

Amount of ethane assumed minimal based on ARB VOC Profile #504

External Combustion – Propane/Butane: Boilers, Process Heaters, Steam Generators em fac (MMBtu/hr)

0.0058 (>=10)

0.0088 (<10)

em fac (MMBtu/hr)

0.0028 (>=10)

0.0053 (<10)

lb/MMBtu ratio (MMBtu/hr)

0.48 (>=10)

0.66 (<10)

AP-42, Table 1.5-2

(emissions assumed to be same as natural gas EFs on a heat input basis)

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

AP-42, Table 1.5-2

(ratios assumed to be same as natural gas)

Crew and Supply Boat Main Engines varies according to individual engine hp rating (see table) varies according to individual engine hp rating (see table) lb/1000 gal 1.0 AP-42, Volume II, Table II-3.3

Only cruise mode EFs are used (note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

APCD Assumption
Crew and Supply Boat: Auxiliary Engines 0.36 0.30 lb/MMBtu 0.8378 AP-42, Table 3.3-2

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #9
Helicopters platform specific EFs are used platform specific EFs are used lb/trip 1.0 Manufacturer data is coupled with platform LTO cycles to generate a platform specific EF APCD Assumption
Batch Mix Hot Mix Asphalt Plants: Natural Gas Fired Dryer 0.017 0.017 lb/ton 1.0 AP-42, Table 11.1-7

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #715
Batch Mix Hot Mix Asphalt Plants: Diesel Fired Dryer 0.046 0.046 lb/ton 1.0 AP-42, Table 11.1-7

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #715
Drum Mix Hot Mix Asphalt Plants: Natural Gas Fired Dryer 0.051 0.051 lb/ton 1.0 AP-42, Table 11.1-8

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #715
Drum Mix Hot Mix Asphalt Plants: Diesel Fired Dryer 0.069 0.069 lb/ton 1.0 AP-42, Table 11.1-8

(note: use permit specific or BACT EF when available)

ARB VOC Profile #715

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